The Vietnamese government is trying to pass a new law on religion that will separate the nations many cults authorised and unauthorised. The move illustrates the governments control over private cults and how it uses them for its own benefit.
The worship of Trn Hng o, a legendary warrior-turned-saint, is a good example of the way the Vietnamese authorities use religious figures to push their nationalistic agenda.
The cult of heroes
Government controls on religion have existed throughout Vietnamese history. Tensions over religion arose during communist rule but, since 1986 (along with economic and political reforms), the government has enhanced its legitimacy and power by approving popular cults, in the same way dynasties in the past did.
Vietnam differs from other Southeast Asian countries in that theres a particular devotion to heroes in its political culture and religious system. Among the Kinh the main ethnic group in Vietnam Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity have co-existed alongside traditional religions and beliefs that often involve hero cults.
This kind of worship grew and has remained strong because of Vietnams history of invasions. Since 938, when the country freed itself from 1,000 years of rule from the Chinese, heroes from different eras including from former feudal dynasties and the recent communist period have been worshipped.
These heroes are honoured as saints or gods and are worshipped in temples and shrines. They form a sacred and spiritual bond between the past and the present.
Although atheism dominated the country during the communist era, many still believe in the existence of souls. Heroes connect people to the world of the dead and of ancestors, which are a regular feature of local cults.
According to French historian Benot de Trglod, more than 60% of the gods worshipped in rural areas and villages are those who once fought in wars to protect the country.
These heroes images have played an important role in maintaining power through various Vietnamese dynasties, each of which paid attention to building and maintaining temples to such heroes in order to secure the peoples support.
The making of a national hero
Among Vietnamese heroes, Trn Hng o is the most popular nationwide. He is regarded as a war hero from the 13th century Trn Dynasty. According to legend, he successfully defeated invaders from the Mongol Empire. People developed a cult of Trn and propagated legends about his life.
In the 20th century, he re-emerged as a symbol of resistance against French colonial power and then against Americans during the Vietnam War.
Trn Hng o is the only figure in Vietnam to be the head of a wide religious sect that includes his family members and even his close army generals. People refer to him as thn (genie) thnh (deity).
Trns powers soon became limitless. He would not only defeat enemies but also eliminate diseases and evil spirits. Ceremonies are conducted for pregnant women and newborn babies in his name, organised by mediums and their disciples, to cure diseases.
The medium asks Saint Trn and the gods in his family to possess him. His cheeks are then pierced by steel sticks. He is suspended from a ceiling or stage until his face turns red enough to scare away evil spirits from the sick, and his tongue is slit to collect blood to make amulets against disease.
Political use of cults
In the feudal period, the cult received royal support. But by the early 20th century, worship rituals and medium possession were considered superstitions by both Confucians and Vietnamese intellectuals and the practices were condemned. But the French colonial administration supported the cults to divert peoples attention.
During the 1986 Doi Moi reforms, which opened Vietnam to industrialisation while retaining a protected economy, these practices became more prevalent than ever, pushed by a government that saw them as a powerful political tool to glorify the nation while opening it to new markets.
The worship of Saint Trn became widely accepted. Civil servants and high administration functionaries were invited to festivals and death anniversaries. Ancient pagodas, temples and shrines that had been closed during the hardline communist rule of the 1960s were reopened and restored. And people were able to visit worship places freely and purchase sacrificial and religious items, such as joss paper.
Village festivals were held and people started to search for their lost ancestors graves. These monuments, which were once considered feudal governors ruling instruments became national cultural heritage once more.
Possession as intangible heritage?
Today, Trn Hng o is present in many different forms in the daily lives of Vietnamese people. Roads and streets are named after him; sculptures grace parks and transport interchanges.
Children learn about him in textbooks alongside stories of the Trn Dynasty. And his places of worship have become tourist attractions.
But the practice of medium possession is still a controversial topic and is not recignised by the authorities.
Many argue that the cult of Saint Trn has become a part of Vietnams national intangible heritage and goes with medium possession practices found in the religion of Four Palaces. In this Vietnamese cosmology, spirits old and new are governed by the Mother Goddess.
Trn Hng o remains alive in Vietnam but his powers are challenged by more recent heroes such as president H Ch Minh and general V Nguyn Gip, a military commander who led Vietnamese forces against the US and the French.
Could Saint Tran be one day forgotten and replaced by other, more manageable nationalistic heroes?